Addiction is persistent and compulsive dependence on a substance or behavior.
Addiction is characterized by denial, lack of control over use or behavior, relapse in use or behavior despite knowing the negative consequences it entails, and distortions of thinking regarding addiction. in periodic or continuous episodes.
Addictions are of a genetic, psychosocial or environmental nature, and directly affect the development progressively becoming fatal in severe cases or where there has been no access to adequate treatment.
Types of additions
Addictions are classified into behavioral or process addictions, and ingestion or substance addictions.
Behavioral or process addictions are compulsive dependencies towards a type of situation or behavior, such as:
- Gambling addiction or gambling
- Sex addiction or hypersexuality
- Addiction to relationships, codependency or romances
- Work addiction
- Addiction to religions or sects
- Internet addiction: associated with nomophobia (fear of running out of mobile device) and FOMO (fear of missing something).
- Video game addiction
Ingestion or substance addictions are chemical or food dependencies. In chemical ingestion addictions are:
- Alcohol addiction or alcoholism
- Drug addiction or drug addiction (cocaine, heroin, opium, crack, etc.)
- Tobacco addiction or smoking
- Hypnotic sedative addiction
Among the food addictions are associated disorders such as compulsive eating, bulimia and anorexia nervosa.
Symptoms of addiction
The symptoms of addiction also depend on the personality of the addict. Symptoms occur in all types of addictions jointly or selectively, with different intensities that vary over time and with the progress or withdrawal of the addiction. Some of them are:
- Use or behavior in compulsive episodes causing lack of control.
- Decrease or damage to the quality of life due to the negative consequences caused by addiction.
- Continued use or behavior despite knowing the negative consequences or damage caused.
- Denial and self-deception.
- The euphoric memory of the addict is the selective memory of pleasant moments and euphoria in the episodes of addiction in the past, and forgetting the negative consequences and associated sufferings.
- Addictive thinking facilitates the justification of addiction.
- Search behavior regardless of the consequences.
- Automatic desires triggered in situations reminiscent of addictive episodes.
- Obsession and excessive worry.
- Emotional freezing due to biochemical changes in the brain.