The adjective is a kind of word that qualifies the noun, with which it agrees on gender and number, to complement its meaning.
From the semantic point of view, the adjective can express qualities (beautiful, tall), states (single, sad, happy), attitudes (active, idealistic), possibilities (probable, incredible), origin or nationality (Mexican, Argentine).
The adjectives complement the meaning of the noun, expanding or restricting its meaning, clarify it or add data about its appearance, shape, color, among others.
Flexion of the adjective
The adjective is characterized by having flexion, that is, morphemes that combine with its lexeme, one of them provides gender: male or female and, when the gender is unknown, the article that accompanies the noun to which it is attached must be used.
On the other hand, it provides number: singular and plural. A ʽ-s á is added to the adjectives finished in atonic vowel or ʽ-eʼ, for example: free / free, beautiful / beautiful.
Adjectives ending in consonant or tonic vowel, except ʽeʼ, ʽ-esʼ is added, for example: children / children. Also, some adjectives do not vary in the plural, as in the case of isosceles or rubials.
Grades of the adjective
The degree of the adjective expresses the intensity with which it characterizes the noun.
It is used to confront two qualities or the intensity with which the same quality is possessed. This can be from:
- Equality: ʽThis movie is as interesting as the one we saw yesterdayʼ.
- Superiority: “ This car is better than yours.”
- Inferiority: “ Ana is taller than Maria.”
It expresses the total possession of a quality by a noun with respect to the rest of the noun of its class, and this in turn is divided into relative and absolute.
- Relative: it can be of superiority or inferiority, for example, “It is the oldest book in the library”.
- Absolute: it has a quality with the greatest possible intensity, for example “The tree is very high”.
Types of adjectives
Below are the most commonly used types of adjectives.
- Qualifying adjective: they are those that describe or qualify the subject of the sentence, for example: ʽyour daughter is very horny for how old she isʼ, ʽthe blue car is his ʼ.
- Demonstrative adjective: determines a relationship of proximity of the noun mentioned, for example: “this apartment is mine”, “that washing machine is good”, “these blankets must be washed”.
- Possessive adjective: it is characterized by attributing to the noun an idea of belonging or possession. These adjectives can go before or after the noun, for example: ʽmy bracelet and your tendrilsʼ, ʽthis book is mineʼ.
- Adjective determinative or determinative: as indicated by its name identifies the subject, for example: “that small dog is cute”, “buy him a cookie”.
- Adjective gentilicio: they identify the origin of people or objects, ʽyour daughter is Mexicanʼ, ʽmy cousins are Venezuelanʼ.
- Indefinite adjective: they are identified by not specifying the exact amount of the noun, for example: ʼ few teachersʼ, ʽsome studentsʼ.
- Adjective numeral: expresses the numerical amount of the noun they accompany, these can be cardinal (three tables), ordinal (fifth month of the year), multiples (double serving of chips) or partitive (a quarter of the attendees).
Adjective and noun
The noun is the kind of word with its own meaning that serves to name beings, objects and ideas, for example: child, boss, lion, actor, Jessica, María, José, among others.
In this sense, the following sentence: “Mary is very intelligent”, you can identify the noun (Mary), and the adjective qualifier (intelligent).