The minimum unit of a substance is known as an atom , which makes up all common or ordinary matter. If the atoms of some matter are able to divide that matter it could be destroyed.
Each thing, substance or matter has different amounts of atoms that compose it, however, the atoms are composed of even smaller particles such as subatomic particles, called protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Within the atom, we can find protons and neutrons in their central part, that is, in the nucleus, electrons are in a kind of orbit around that central part called the nucleus, and these in turn weigh less than protons, and neutrons.
The unity of several atoms with each other results in the formation of molecules that then subatomic particles, and the atom itself is the smallest unit of matter.
In chemistry, it is said to be the smallest part of an element that can intervene in a chemical reaction. During chemical reactions, atoms are conserved as such, they are not created or destroyed but they are organized differently creating different bonds between one atom, and another.
Due to the great chemical scholars who managed to demonstrate and discover that any object, thing, solid, and even liquids, and the gases themselves, can be broken down into different elements, such as the example of water, since each molecule of this It is made up of two atoms of hydrogen, and one of oxygen (H2O).
Despite all this, it should be noted that not all matter in the universe is composed of an atom, since dark matter constitutes more of the universe than matter, and this is not composed of atoms but of particles of a currently unknown type.
Finally, in relation to its etymological origin, the word atom, comes from the Greek, which refers to “that which is inseparable or that cannot be divided.”
The atom can be referred to in other areas such as:
Atom in philosophy
The doctrine of atomism, defended by the philosophers Leucipo, and Democritus of Abdera, reveal that reality is composed of atoms, being small and indivisible particles.
On the other hand, according to philosophy, the theory of the atom is characterized by the immutability of the elements and species, which means that fire will always be fire, when we see it and when we don’t; Let water always be water, and so on.
John Dalton presented the first atomic model, which postulated that matter is made up of small, indivisible and indestructible particles, called atoms. On the other hand, atoms have their own weight and qualities.
In 1897, Joseph John Thomson discovered the electron, which deduced that matter was composed of a positive part, and the other negative. The negative part formed by electrons, immersed in a mass of positive charge.
Then, Jean Perrin, proposed a model in which electrons were on the outside, causing the positive charge.
A neutral atom is characterized by the lack of electric charge. Electrons have a negative charge and protons have a positive charge, in conclusion, a neutral atom has the same number of electrons as protons.