The term ketosis, which comes from the scientific Latin ketosis, is used in the field of medicine to refer to the pathological disorder that is generated when an excessive level of ketones is registered in the blood.
The ketone is an organic compound having a carbonyl group linked to two carbon atoms. When an organism has a carbohydrate deficiency, a situation in the metabolism known as ketosis occurs: the lack of carbohydrates – also called carbohydrates – leads to the catabolism (degradation) of fats in order to obtain energy, which that produces the generation of ketone bodies.
These ketone bodies are responsible for the breakdown of fats, generating acetoacetate that is used as energy. The body, in this framework, begins to use fats as the main source of energy, leaving aside carbohydrates.
Specifically, the carbohydrate deficit causes acetyl coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) to accumulate, which in a normal situation is converted to pyruvate through glycolysis. Acetyl-CoA, through various processes, generates ketone bodies. Since the liver lacks the enzymes needed to metabolize them, these compounds are released into the blood for use by various tissues, leading to ketosis.
According to DigoPaul, if the body is in ketosis, it burns fat more easily. The state even affects the reserves of the subject. There are weight loss diets that seek to induce ketosis to minimize the level of fat in the body.
The ketogenic diet, precisely, is one in which the consumption of carbohydrates (a group in which we find foods such as tubers, legumes, fruits and cereals) is substantially reduced while that of good fats (such as coconut) is increased., olive oil and avocado), with the aim of forcing the body to consume fat again.
It must be taken into account that, when the body does not achieve the expulsion of ketone bodies due to a metabolic disorder, ketoacidosis occurs, which can cause various health problems.
In this context, it is necessary to mention the Warburg effect, which within the field of oncology refers to the fact that most cancer cells generate energy mainly in the cytoplasmic matrix (also called cytosol, it is the liquid located inside the cells, divided into several compartments by means of a series of membranes).
Since glucose is the main food for cancer cells because of this effect, some studies have found that the key to the development of various types of cancer is the presence of glucose, which is why ketosis can lead to a benefit to slow the growth of tumors.
In more than one study it has been observed that by starting a ketogenic diet, patients achieve a significant decrease in tumor growth, and this can lead to a notable improvement in the quality of life in subjects with prostate, gastric, colon cancer or cerebral.
On the other hand, there are scientific studies that focus on the supposed benefits of ketogenic diets in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, since it is believed that they could act as adjuvants, that is, substances that enhance the main effect of others when combined with them.
More and more people are adapting their eating habits to trends that seek to reduce carbohydrate consumption; in Sweden, for example, this can be seen in about a quarter of its population, which is why the country’s obesity rate is remarkably low.